Sunday, December 29, 2013

Is it ok for a Catholic to date a person of another religion?

A pair of wedding rings (Wikipedia)
A pair of wedding rings (Wikipedia)
Question: I read in Rappler an article entiled, My BF and I have different religions:
We are very happy and seriously in love with each other. The thing is, we're not in the same religion or faith in God. We don't get along well on this, but we respect each other's beliefs. He doesn't want to be converted to my religion. He stands on what he believes and I've accepted that already.
Reply:

This will be a very difficult married life.  The letter sender already noticed that they don't get along well regarding religion.  This conflict will be amplified during married life, especially when children enter the picture. If you are Catholic, you may wish to read what the Canon Law of the Church  says about mixed marriages.  There is a wisdom in this law for many practical reasons.  I'll present first the practical reasons, then the laws of the Church.

Related Post: Catholic dating tips: Lessons from a strip-tease dancer


Marriage: Catholic Or Mixed - Protestant and Catholic Relations Frankly Discussed
A. Practical Reasons Against Mixed Marriages

If you decide to get married, there are many things both parties have to agree together with their families. Let us assume that one of the party is a Catholic.

  • If the other party is an Iglesia ni Cristo, then the marriage cannot happen unless it is in an INC chapel by an INC minister.  Since mixed marriages are not allowed by INC, then the non-INC party must convert before the marriage to take place.  
  • If the other party is Muslim, then it is also expected that the other party must convert to Islam before marriage.
  • If the other party is Protestant, there may still be a possibility of mixed marriages, especially if the other also believes in the Dogma of the Blessed Trinity.  But there is still 500 years of Protestant animosity against the Catholic religion which always stands in the way.
So we can now reduce the available options to a Catholic marrying a Protestant.  Will the marriage be according to a Protestant rite or to a Catholic rite?  This will already divide the families, since some may not come to chapels of other faiths.  After marriage, the couple will have their first child.  Will the child be baptized a few days after birth or after he accepted Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior which may be in his teens?  This is another debate. During Sundays, where will the child go: to a Protestant Church or to a Catholic Church?  The new family is already divided here. At home, what Bible will be used: a Catholic Bible or a Protestant Bible with several books less?  Will the pictures of the the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary be placed at the walls?  How about the grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes?  How about the prayer before the crucifix.  Before meals, will the family make the sign of the cross?  All these may be trivial for those who do not take their Faith seriously.  But for those who do so, these seemingly little differences eats up whatever love the couple has for each other until there is only hatred in the hearts and remorse for the for the marriage that happened.  Indeed, the only way for marriage to remain intact is to convert the other spouse, and this is what many have done. The other possible result, however, is that the couple and their children become indifferent to religion--either all religions are equal or all religions do not matter--which are equally disastrous.

Canon Law of Marriage and the Family
Canon Law of Marriage and the Family
B. Canon Law of the Catholic Church Regarding Mixed Marriages

If one of the party is Catholic, he or she is governed by the Canon Law of the Church:
Can. 1005 §2. For this reason, a valid matrimonial contract cannot exist between the baptized without it being by that fact a sacrament.
Can. 1086 §1. A marriage between two persons, one of whom has been baptized in the Catholic Church or received into it and has not defected from it by a formal act and the other of whom is not baptized, is invalid.
Can. 1108 §1. Only those marriages are valid which are contracted before the local ordinary, pastor, or a priest or deacon delegated by either of them, who assist, and before two witnesses according to the rules expressed in the following canons and without prejudice to the exceptions mentioned in cann. ⇒ 144, ⇒ 1112, §1, ⇒ 1116, and ⇒ 1127, §§1-2. 
Can. 1118 §1. A marriage between Catholics or between a Catholic party and a non-Catholic baptized party is to be celebrated in a parish church. It can be celebrated in another church or oratory with the permission of the local ordinary or pastor. 
Can. 1119 Outside the case of necessity, the rites prescribed in the liturgical books approved by the Church or received by legitimate customs are to be observed in the celebration of a marriage.
Can. 1005 and 1086 state that if one of the of the party is unbaptized in the Trinitarian sense as understood by the Catholic Church, then the two parties are forbidden to marry in the Catholic Church.  In other words, if one of the parties is Muslim or Iglesia ni Cristo, then the marriage is forbidden because these two religions do not believe in the divinity of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Can. 1108, 1118, and 119 state that the marriage ceremony cannot be performed by a non-Catholic minister or using a non-Catholic rite or in a place not approved by the local bishop.
The Invalid Marriage
The Invalid Marriage

But mixed marriages between a Catholic and a  non-Catholic do happen, and the Code of Canon Law stipulates that the local bishop can grant permission if there is a just and reasonable cause.  The following reasons are necessary for the mixed marriage to be permitted (Can. 1125):
  1. The Catholic party is to declare that he or she is prepared to remove dangers of defecting from the faith and is to make a sincere promise to do all in his or her power so that all offspring are baptized and brought up in the Catholic Church; 
  2. The other party is to be informed at an appropriate time about the promises which the Catholic party is to make, in such a way that it is certain that he or she is truly aware of the promise and obligation of the Catholic party; 
  3. Both parties are to be instructed about the purposes and essential properties of marriage which neither of the contracting parties is to exclude.
Articles 1 and 2 state that the mixed marriage will only be allowed if there is an assurance that the children will be raised Catholic and that the Catholic party will not convert to the religion of his wife or husband. If either the Catholic or non-Catholic party does not accept these stipulations of the Code of Canon Law, then it is best that they separate ways and not pursue marriage.


Related Books:

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Nativity scene: Why we need traditional icons and not wooden blocks

Nativity scene: why we need traditional icons and not wooden blocks. Picture credit: Nativity scene in Baumkirchen, Austria by Haneburger (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Advent is a time of waiting for Christ, the Savior of the World.  The image is Mary contemplating Christ in her womb. Christmas, on the other hand, is the birth of Christ.  The image is Christ in the manger surrounded by Mary, Joseph, the Magi, the shepherds, the animals, the angels, and the star.  Another image is Christ in the cradle of Mary's arms, which is normally depicted in paintings as the Madonna and Child.

Now, here's a picture of a Modernist Nativity scene by Emilie Doirin:
The contemporary nativity set is handcrafted in beech. It includes blocks with different proportions to represent Mary, Joseph, three wise men, an angel, a sheep and a donkey, plus baby Jesus,placed on a slightly lighter block representing a manger. "The holy scene that has been broadly reproduced is here recognisable by the names only, giving free rein to people’s imagination," the designer added.
I don't know why would anyone do this.  One reason may be is that the Christmas Nativity scene is not allowed to be displayed in government public places such as in US, so we have to be creative and display only blocks of wood with words on them.  In this way,  Christians don't offend the sensitivity of Jews, Muslims, Pagans, and Atheists.  Call this Tolerance--the new religion of the Modern Age--which has become the most intolerant of all religions.

But such a Nativity scene of blocks and letters is only for the literate who understands English.  How about the Chinese, the Japanese, the Thai, and the Arab who does not understand English?  How about the illiterate beggars, thieves, and street vendors?  How about the atheists and pagans?  The good news of the Incarnation must also be preached to all men and women, and one of the universal languages of preaching is the use of pictures.   That is why most traditional churches make the best stained glass windows depicting images in the Bible, because many of the parishioners never read the Bible, even if they are literate enough to read newspapers, books, and peer-reviewed journal articles.

If you are a pagan and you see the traditional Nativity such as the one on the right, what would you think?  Well, there is a baby born who is the source of light in the dark night.  The man and woman may be his father and mother because they, too, share the halo around their heads.  But since only the child radiates light all over his body, then the child must be greater than his parents.  Those who see him are the poor, probably shepherds because of their staff. They kneel before him as one would kneel before the king.  Then this Child must be a king.  But what kind of king is this who was born in a manger with no crib for a bed?  Where are the royal bed, the luxurious clothes, and the palace trappings?  Where are the mail-clad soldiers, the servants-in-waiting, and King and Queen dressed in all their glory?  Who can solve this riddle for us?

The seeds of faith is then sown in the pagan's heart, and he becomes open to the hearing of the Good News of the Incarnation: God became Man.  And the Christian who hears his question would relate to him the story behind the image: how God chose the Virgin Mary to be the Mother of the Savior, how St. Joseph was chosen to be Mary's husband and Jesus's foster father, how they came to Bethlehem to be enrolled in the census of the Roman Empire, how the inns were full, how they found a manger for the pregnant woman, how the child was born, how the angels sang, how the shepherds learned of the good news, how the magi learned the birth of the new-born king of the Jews through a star, how they offered to him their gifts, how Herod learned about the child, how he massacred all infants, etc.

The Christmas story is a story rooted in history.  It is never a myth invented by man.  That is why when we illustrate the Christmas nativity scene, we should always strive for historical accuracy and not what we thought it should be, for as St. Anselm said, what is real is far greater than what we can imagine.

Kurt Adler 6-Inch 7-Piece Resin Nativity Set with Stable and 6 Figures
Kurt Adler 6-Inch 7-Piece Resin Nativity Set with Stable and 6 Figures
Lighted Woodland Handcrafted Wooden Nativity Scene - What On Earth Exclusive
Lighted Woodland Handcrafted Wooden Nativity Scene - What On Earth Exclusive
Joy to the World: How Christ's Coming Changed Everything (and Still Does)
Joy to the World: How Christ's Coming Changed Everything (and Still Does)

Sunday, December 15, 2013

Arkenstone of Dwarves, Bones of St. Peter, and the Blessed Sacrament

The Arkenstone Necklace Sterling Silver - Lord of the Rings Jewelry
The Arkenstone Necklace Sterling Silver - Lord of the Rings Jewelry
The Arkenstone provides Thorin the right to rule in the same way as the ownership of the Bones of St. Peter supports the claim of primacy of the Bishop of Rome over all other bishops.  The Arkenstone also reminds us of the Blessed Sacrament which is displayed by the priest during Benediction.

A. The Arkenstone 

In the movie, The Hobbit: Desolation of Smaug, the movie revolves not so much about Smaug the Dragon, but about the Arkenstone:
 "The Arkenstone!  The Arkenstone!" murmured Thorin in the dark, half dreaming with his chin upon his knees. "It was like a globe with a thousand facets; it shone like silver in the firelight, like water in the sun, like snow under the stars, like rain upon the Moon!" (Inside Information, The Hobbit, p. 231)
It was the Arkenstone, the Heart of the Mountain.  So bilbo guessed from Thorin's description; but indeed there could not be two such gems, even in so marvellous a hoard, even in all the world.  Ever as he climbed, the same white gleam had shone before him and drawn his feet towards it.  Slowly it grew to a little globe of pallid light.  Now as he came near, it was tinged with a flickering sparkle of many colours at the surface, reflected and splintered from the wavering light of his torch.  At last he looked down upon it, and he caught his breath.  The great jewel shone before his feet of its own inner light, and yet, cut and fashioned by the dwarves, who had dug it from the heart of the mountain long ago, it took all light that fell upon it and changed it into then thousand sparks of white radiance shot with glints of the rainbow. (Not at Home, The Hobbit, p. 237)
The Hobbit Arkenstone TM of Thrain Replica Treasure By the Dwarven Longbeards Clan of the Lonely Mountain
The Hobbit Arkenstone TM of Thrain Replica Treasure By the Dwarven Longbeards Clan of the Lonely Mountain
Why is the Arkenstone important for Thorin?  In the movie, we hear that the Stone would give Thorin the right to rule.  There is nothing in the book that says about this.  We only know the following words of Thorin considers it as an important heirloom:
For the Arkenstone of my father... is worth more than a river of gold in itself, and to me it is beyond price.  That stone of all the treasure I name unto myself, and I will be avenged on anyone who finds it and withholds it.  (A Thief in the Night, The Hobbit, p. 269)
The Lord of the Rings explained how this jewel was found and how it was lost, which forms the historical background of the movie:
Most of those that escaped (the Balrog of Moria) made their way into the North, and Thrain I, Nain's son, came to Erebor, the Lonely Mountain, near the eastern eaves of Mirkwood, and there he began new works, and became King under the Mountain.  In Erebor he found the great jewel, the Arkenstone, Heart of the Mountain.... But there were dragons in the wastes beyond.... and they made war on the Dwarves, and plundered their works....Thror, Dain's heir... returned to Erebor.  To the Great Hall of Thrain, Thror brought back the Arkenstone, and he and his folk prospered and became rich, and they had the friendship of all Men that dwelt near...So the rumour of the weath of Erebor spread abroad and reached the ears of the dragons, and at last Smaug the Golden, greatest of the dragons of his day, arose and without warning came against King Thror and descended on the Mountain in flames.  It was not long before all that realm was destroyed, and the town of Dale nearby was ruined and deserted; but Smaug entered into the Great Hall and lay there upon a bed of gold. (Appendix A, The Lord of the Rings, p. 1072)
The Hobbit Thorin SDCC 2012 Exclusive Mini Bust
The Hobbit Thorin SDCC 2012 Exclusive Mini Bust
When Thorin died, the Arkenstone was buried with him, for during the division of the treasure, Dain son of Nain who became King Under the Mountain said:
We will honour the agreement of the dead, and he has now the Arkenstone in his keeping. (The Return Journey, The Hobbit, p. 293).
The Lord of the Rings explained much further:
In that first Battle of Dale, Thorin Oakenshield was mortally wounded; and he died and was laid in a tomb under the Mountain with the Arkenstone upon his breast. ( Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, p 1078)
So clearly, owning the Arkenstone is not a prerequisite to becoming King Under the Mountain.

But I think the writers of the Hobbit Film has an excellent insight on the necessity of possessing the Arkenstone in order to obtain the right to rule.  Dain son of Nain may not have the Arkenstone with him in his person, but because Thorin's tomb is within his realm Under the Mountain, then Dain can claim to possess the Arkenstone indirectly, which would give him the right to rule.

Bones of St. Peter
Bones of St. Peter
B. The Bones of St. Peter

The ownership of an artifact as a precondition to the right to rule is similar to the claim of primacy of the Bishop of Rome, for the reason that St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, the apostle whom Christ made as the Rock of the Church, died in Rome.  Like the Arkenstone which was found by the Thorin's ancestor Thrain buried beneath the mountain, the Bones of St. Peter was also found buried beneath St. Peter's Basilica.  Notice the similarity of the Vatican mausoleums beneath the ground with Dwarven city complexes:
Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of St. Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300.[1][2] The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330.[3] Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty.[4] However, following the discovery of further bones and an inscription, on June 26, 1968 Pope Paul VI announced that the relics of St. Peter had been identified.
The grave claimed by the Church to be that of St. Peter lies at the foot of the aedicula beneath the floor. The remains of four individuals and several farm animals were found in this grave.[5] In 1953, after the initial archeological efforts had been completed, another set of bones were found that were said to have been removed without the archeologists' knowledge from a niche (loculus) in the north side of a wall (the graffiti wall) that abuts the red wall on the right of the aedicula. Subsequent testing indicated that these were the bones of a 60-70 year old man.[6] Margherita Guarducci argued that these were the remains of St. Peter and that they had been moved into a niche in the graffiti wall from the grave under the aedicula "at the time of Constantine, after the peace of the church" (313).[7] Antonio Ferrua, the archaeologist who headed the excavation that uncovered what is known as the St. Peter's Tomb, said that he wasn't convinced that the bones that were found were those of St. Peter.[8] (Wikipedia: St. Peter's Tomb)
Francis: Pope of a New World
Last November 2013, Pope Francis displayed the relics of the bones of St. Peter for the first time:
The Vatican has publicly unveiled bone fragments purportedly belonging to Saint Peter, reviving the scientific debate and tantalising mystery over whether the relics found in a shoe box truly belong to the first pope.
The nine pieces of bone sat nestled like rings in a jewel box inside a bronze display case on the side of the altar during a mass commemorating the end of the Vatican's year-long celebration of the Christian faith. It was the first time they had ever been exhibited in public.
Pope Francis prayed before the fragments at the start of Sunday's service and clutched the case in his arms for several minutes after his homily. (The Guardian)
The act may be simple, but it is a powerful symbol of the continuity of the Petrine ministry from St. Peter to the present pope, who claims the title, "Successor of Peter", thereby fulfilling Christ's promise to Peter of the indestructibility of His Church:
“Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood* has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly Father.18k And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church,* and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it.19l I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven.* Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” (Mt 16:17-19)
Thorin entered Erebor using a key.  This key reminds us of the Petrine keys which the Popes hold, the keys of the kingdom of heaven, as shown in the flag of Vatican City.

Large Cross Monstrance with Luna
Large Cross Monstrance with Luna
C. The Blessed Sacrament

In the movie, we see the Arkenstone drawn in the walls of Erebor as a circle with light rays.  What is lacking is the Arkenstone itself.  The circle with light rays reminds us of the monstrance or the Tabernacle and Arkenstone is the Sacred Host or the Blessed Sacrament.

Only a properly ordained priest can offer the Mass (Holy Eucharist), and during the Mass, bread and wine becomes the Body and Blood of Christ.  The consecrated bread are laid to rest in the Tabernacle and the priest keeps the keys (notice again the image of the keys) to prevent unauthorized persons from profaning the Sacred Host.  As stated in the Code of Canon Law:
Can. 934 In sacred places where the blessed Eucharist is reserved there must always be someone who is responsible for it, and as far as possible for it, and as far as possible a priest is to celebrate Mass there at least twice a month.
Without the Arkenstone, the King Under the Mountain has the right to rule.  In a similar way, without the Eucharist, the priest has no right to rule over a parish, because he only dispenses the Sacraments in persona Christi.

Visits to the Most Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Virgin Mary (A Liguori Classic)
Visits to the Most Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Virgin Mary (A Liguori Classic)
During Benediction, the Blessed Sacrament is placed inside the circular glass of the monstrance, and the priest holds it high for all the people to adore.  Had Thorin saw the Blessed Sacrament, he would describe it as he would describe the Arkenstone:
 "It was like a globe with a thousand facets; it shone like silver in the firelight, like water in the sun, like snow under the stars, like rain upon the Moon!" (Inside Information, The Hobbit, p. 231)
But the Blessed Sacrament is not an artifact.  Like the Arkenstone that contains a light within, the Blessed Sacrament contains the Light of the World, the King of Kings, the Lord of Lords, the God-Man Christ Himself:
 “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life." (Jn 8:12)
Indeed, as the Prologue of John teaches us:
In the beginning* was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.a 2 He was in the beginning with God.3* All things came to be through him, and without him nothing came to be.b What came to be4 through him was life, and this life was the light of the human race;c5* the light shines in the darkness,d and the darkness has not overcome it. (Jn 1:1-5)
Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent
Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent
The Blessed Sacrament is Christ Himself, for when the priest pronounces the words of Consecration, a circular white bread ceases to be bread though it still appears as bread, for this bread has become the Body of Christ:
1376 The Council of Trent summarizes the Catholic faith by declaring: "Because Christ our Redeemer said that it was truly his body that he was offering under the species of bread, it has always been the conviction of the Church of God, and this holy Council now declares again, that by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called transubstantiation. (Catechism of the Catholic Church)
St. Thomas Aquinas describes it best in the song that we sing during Benediction: Pange Lingua Gloriosi Here's the English translation:
On the night of that Last Supper,
seated with His chosen band,
He, the Paschal Victim eating,
first fulfils the Law's command;
then as Food to His Apostles
gives Himself with His own Hand.
Word-made-Flesh, the bread of nature
by His Word to Flesh He turns;
wine into His Blood He changes;
what though sense no change discerns?
Only be the heart in earnest,
faith her lesson quickly learns.
Down in adoration falling,
This great Sacrament we hail,
O'er ancient forms of worship
Newer rites of grace prevail;
Faith will tell us Christ is present,
When our human senses fail.



Sunday, December 8, 2013

Conception and Contraception: Virgin Mary and Margaret Sanger

The Miraculous Medal containing the Image of the Immaculate Conception
I.  Immaculate Conception

Today is the Feast of the Immaculate Conception.  As defined by Pope Pius IX last December 8, 1854 in his encyclical, Ineffabilis Deus:
 "We declare, pronounce, and define that the doctrine which holds that the most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instance of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by Almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by God and therefore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful."
Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit: The Marian Teaching of St. Maximilian Kolbe
Immaculate Conception and the Holy Spirit: The Marian Teaching of St. Maximilian Kolbe
Four years after, Our Lady appeared to St. Bernadette Soubirous on March 25, 1858 and proclaimed her title:
"I am the Immaculate Conception" ("que soy era immaculada concepciou")
But two decades before this, on November 27, 1830, the Virgin Mary already appeared to Catherine Soubirous instructing her to promote the devotion to the Miraculous Medal:
According to an account written by Catherine's own hand, Mary was clothed in a robe of auroral light and her robe had a high neck and plain sleeves. According to Catherine's notes, the medal should also have half a globe upon which Mary's feet rest, hands raised up to her waist, fingers filled with diamond rings of different sizes giving off rays of light, and a frame slightly oval with golden letters saying, "O Mary! conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee!" Her fingers each had three rings and the largest stones emitted the most brilliant rays. She added that some of the diamonds did not give off rays. 
 Mary, the Immaculate Conception, was conceived without sin.

Margaret Sanger's Eugenic Legacy: The Control of Female Fertility
II. Margaret Sanger and Contraception

It is interesting how the modern world has turned this statement upside down by telling each woman around the world: "Mary, to conceive is to sin."  In 1914, sixty years after the proclamation of the Immaculate Conception in Ineffabilis Deus, Margaret Sanger wrote an 8-page monthly newsletter on contraception with the slogan, "No Gods, No Masters."  In 1917, she published the monthly periodical, The Birth Control Review.  In 1921, she founded the American Birth Control League, with the following guiding principles:
"We hold that children should be (1) Conceived in love; (2) Born of the mother's conscious desire; (3) And only begotten under conditions which render possible the heritage of health. Therefore we hold that every woman must possess the power and freedom to prevent conception except when these conditions can be satisfied."
With the support of the Rockefeller family, Sanger created the Clinical Research Bureau, a birth control clinic, which later gave rise to the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1952--a name which Sanger deplored because it is too euphemistic.  Planned Parenthood is the number one abortion provider in the US and is one of the major supporters of the Reproductive Health Law in the Philippines.

The guiding principles of the American Birth Control League has discriminated against babies that were not born in love or the mother's conscious decision or were simply sickly
As part of her efforts to promote birth control, Sanger found common cause with proponents of eugenics, believing that they both sought to "assist the race toward the elimination of the unfit."[73] Sanger was a proponent of negative eugenics, which aims to improve human hereditary traits through social intervention by reducing reproduction by those considered unfit. Sanger's eugenic policies included an exclusionary immigration policy, free access to birth control methods and full family planning autonomy for the able-minded, and compulsory segregation or sterilization for the profoundly retarded.[74][75] In her book The Pivot of Civilization, she advocated coercion to prevent the "undeniably feeble-minded" from procreating.[76] Although Sanger supported negative eugenics, she asserted that eugenics alone was not sufficient, and that birth control was essential to achieve her goals
Humanae Vitae: A Generation Later
Humanae Vitae: A Generation Later
Notice the Darwinian undercurrents in Sanger's pronouncements: "Survival of the fittest, removal of the unfit."  But it will not be nature who will define who will be the fittest and the unfit; rather, it will be Margaret Sanger or the woman or Planned Parenthood or the State.  This is what Pope Paul VI prophesied in 1968 in his Encyclical, Humanae Vitae:
Finally, careful consideration should be given to the danger of this power passing into the hands of those public authorities who care little for the precepts of the moral law. Who will blame a government which in its attempt to resolve the problems affecting an entire country resorts to the same measures as are regarded as lawful by married people in the solution of a particular family difficulty? Who will prevent public authorities from favoring those contraceptive methods which they consider more effective? Should they regard this as necessary, they may even impose their use on everyone. It could well happen, therefore, that when people, either individually or in family or social life, experience the inherent difficulties of the divine law and are determined to avoid them, they may give into the hands of public authorities the power to intervene in the most personal and intimate responsibility of husband and wife.
 And true enough, Pres. Aquino has fulfilled this prophecy when he signed in December 21, 2012 the  Republic Act No. 10354, An Act Providing for a National Policy on Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health.